Gordon L, Cleland JA
Context: Medical education is not simple, nor stable and is highly contextualised, so ways of perceiving multiple connections and complexity are fundamental when seeking to describe, understand and address concerns and questions related to change.
Proposal: Addressing calls in the literature, we introduce three examples of contemporary organizational theory which can be used to understand and operationalise change within medical education. These theories - institutional logics, paradox theory, and complexity leadership theory - are relatively unknown in medical education. However, they provide a way of making sense of the complexity of change creatively. Specifically, they cross-cut different levels of analysis and allow us to 'zoom in' to the micro levels as well as 'zoom out' and connect what is happening at the individual level (the micro-level) to what happens at a wider institutional and even national/international level (the macro-level), thus providing a means of understanding the interactions between individuals, teams, organizations and systems. We highlight the potential value of these theories, provide a brief discussion of the few studies that have used them in medical education, and then briefly critique each theory.
Conclusions: We hope that by drawing attention of readers to the potential of these management theories we can unlock some of the complexity of change in medical education, support new ways of thinking and open new avenues for research.