Summary: Team-based learning (TBL) has been widely used for undergraduate medical education, and it is usually modified at some degrees at the course level. Although the TBL method allows flexibility depending on the context and demands of the course, benefits from TBL in the learning process should be kept. Description: Team-based learning (TBL) has been widely used for undergraduate medical education. TBL is usually modified at some degrees at the course level. Every step of TBL can be modified. In classical TBL, the large group is divided into teams of 6-8 students; however, in modified TBL (mTBL) a group of 20-28 students can be expected, especially if there are a large number of students (>300) registering the course. Insufficient number of instructors is another factor if TBL is divided into multiple small rooms for its small groups, not being within a large room. Lecture handouts may be a solely pre-assigned reading without preparatory material assigned for reading outside of class. Individual Readiness Assurance Test may be based on content of lecture and Group Readiness Assurance Test may not be conducted. Thus, lacking of discussion on the test facilitated by the instructor can be occurred in mTBL. Application exercise or clinical scenarios, on which the use the knowledge they have acquired from previous steps to solve a new problem as a group, may also be modified to group presentation on the stage. This exercise may not really be an exercise of knowledge application if the case is given to students before class. Each group may be assigned an exercise that is different to that assigned to other groups. In this case, students in each group may lose its opportunity to defend their solution in the problem that is expected to be the same.
Although the TBL method allows flexibility depending on the context and demands of the course, benefits from TBL in the learning process should be kept. These benefits include active student participation in the learning process and opportunities for students to apply what they are learning using higher order learning skills, which could lead to improvement of learning outcome.