Summary:

AMEE 2007 addressed a wide range of topics in medical and healthcare professions educationfocussing on the continuum of education from undergraduate through postgraduate to continuing medical education.

Article:

Links to vidoes coming soon.........

Don't bother me, I'm learning

Marc Prensky
Video and computer game playing is beneficial to today's "digital native" students who are using them to prepare themselves for life in the 21st Century. They are learning about important "future" things from collaboration, to prudent risk-taking, to strategy formulation and execution and to complex moral and ethical decisions. Many adults are sadly misinformed about the potential and value of game-playing. There are also however "digital native" teachers who understand how gaming can, among other things, teach advanced problem-solving, language and cognitive skills, multi-tasking and parallel processing.

Enhancing the development of professional performance
K Anders Ericsson
The theoretical framework of expert performance is extended to the measurement of professional performance and its development. The key issue is how one can modify professional activities so their quality can be regularly evaluated to provide detailed and reliable feedback to practitioners along with recommendations for suggested deliberate practice in designed practice environments. Insights into the causal learning mechanisms that mediate improvements of measurable performance are now better understood. It may soon be possible to estimate the amount of time of deliberate practice needed to attain certain levels of performance and thus quantify the cost of attaining and maintaining specific levels of performance. Implications of efforts to measure professional performance and its development and maintenance are discussed.

Patient focused simulation
R Kneebone, D Nestel
Patient focused simulation (PFS) is the innovative combination of a real human being (simulated patient, actor) with a physical or virtual reality simulator. The aim is to provide a safe yet authentic context for learning and assessment of procedural skills, combining the benefits of simulation with the cues of real life clinical encounters. The presence of a real person taps into the clinician's own practice, while offering feedback about subtle interpersonal interaction as well as technical skill. PFS resonates with contemporary thinking around simulation, workplace based assessment and the contextualisation of healthcare learning. It offers a conceptual framework which moves beyond the simple repetition of technical tasks and addresses issues of real-world challenge. It draws on a range of learning theories and applies to many domains within healthcare education. This symposium will provide a forum for discussion of educational and other issues relevant to PFS.

AMEE Updates
Erik Driessen, David Cook, Lambert Schuwirth
The Update talks were aimed at those delegates who are not expert in the fields of Clinical assessment, E-learning and Portfolios, but who wished to learn what is current about these topics.

Portfolio in 20 minutes Erik Driessen
Portfolios use in medical education has seen a rapid rise during the past fifteen years. When current trends persist, as illustrated by the introduction of portfolios in clerkships in the US and in specialist training in the UK, it is quite likely that in the not too distant future every physician may be required to be either mentor, assessor or creator of a portfolio at some point in his or her career. This session addresses the question: what is a portfolio and how can we use it effectively?

Update on e-learning David Cook
This Update will provide those new to e-learning with an introduction to this increasingly prevalent method of instruction. Drawing on both practical experience and empirical evidence, we will review the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning, discuss situations in which e-learning may be useful and times when other techniques might be preferable, and examine what works for effective e-learning. We will conclude with an overview of current and future directions for research in e-learning. Although we will only scratch the surface on each topic, attendees will come away with a firm foundation in e-learning fundamentals. Specific suggestions for further study will be provided.

Clinical Assessment: feedback matters
Lambert Schuwirth
After the era of standardised testing there is currently a renewed interest in practice-based assessment. Instruments such as mini-CEX and 360 degree feedback have become popular, but these new assessment methods also have their strengths and weaknesses. These newer assessment approaches differ from the ones we are used to. The most important difference is the change in purpose. Standard testing is aimed at assessing the outcome of teaching and learning, whereas practice-based assessment aims more to steer learning and coaching. For this training to occur, it is essential that practice-based assessment provides feedback to learners to help them optimise their learning activities. This presentation will review practice-based assessment and the way to provide feedback in the assessment.

Transformed gross anatomy in a revised medical curriculum
Wojciech Pawlina
Medical curricula are changing in response to the ongoing transformation of the US health care system. Medical students are now acquiring new skills and competencies in addition to basic science and clinical knowledge. Traditional basic science courses provide opportunities to teach principles of management, information technology, leadership, and team-building skills. Gross anatomy is the first course that can address issues related to professionalism such as respect, responsibility, confidentiality, self-policing, and interpersonal skills. In a revised medical curriculum, the gross anatomy course should be viewed not only as a basic science course but also as an early opportunity to teach new skills and competencies for tomorrow's physicians.

Implications of rapid advances in medical sciences including genetics for UG and PG medical education
Domenico Coviello
The latest progress in the field of human genetics is changing the needs and the delivery of health care in our era. The ability to tailor therapies and predict both positive and negative outcomes through the analysis of genotype will lead to an increased role for genetics in the delivery of health care. It is therefore essential that medical doctors are appropriately prepared to deliver patient care. The establishment of core competences is currently being used as a basis for health professional education in many other fields and settings (Walton & Elliott, 2006; Wold et al, 2006; Smith, 2005). We describe a set of core competences that could apply to health professionals in Europe, whatever their national setting and could provide an appropriate framework for establishing minimum standards of preparation for health care professionals in genetics across national boundaries.

Basic sciences and professional development
Ingeborg Netterstrom
The presentation will illuminate the process of medical students learning the basic sciences and their development of a professional identity, based on results from a research project, a longitudinal study. Entering medical school, students have high expectations of their future role as a doctor. In the preclinical phase they learn that medical mknowledge is unambiguous and authoritative beyond discussion and reflection. The question is: what impact does it have in relation to the student's formation of an identity as a physician? And how are the students prepared to face uncertainty and complexity in the clinic?

The integration of Human Patient Simulators with traditional
Judy Harris
We are currently using high fidelity, computer-controlled Human Patient Simulators to enhance our physiology teaching for first and second year medical, dental, veterinary and medical science undergraduates. The simulators are used mainly in small group (n=20), interactive sessions to illustrate physiological principles that cannot be demonstrated in human (i.e. student!) subjects. We are currently developing scenarios that illustrate aspects of cardiovascular and respiratory physiology - by demonstrating how the manikin responds, for example, to simulated haemorrhage and to 'breathing' different mixtures of inspired air. Staff and student feedback for this new approach to teaching physiology has been very positive.

Body Painting as a teaching tool in teaching anatomy to medical students and life drawing artists
Paul G. McMenamin
With a move to more integrated systems-based approach in the preclinical disciplines at our medical school the author has been developing and trialling a variety of novel teaching methods in the medical course alongside conventional surface anatomy, radiology and cadaver prosections. One of these methods, body painting, has proven very successful. The author has also been running classes for life drawing artists on the anatomical basis of the human form. Participants get to personally participate in painting muscles onto live nude models. The result is not only an astounding teaching and learning tool but also represents a living 3D artform.

e-Learning vs e-Teaching: autonomy or control?
Panel: Goh Poh Sun, Michael Begg, John Sandars, David Cook
The development of the Internet has posed fundamental questions regarding freedom, access and control. These are echoed in the online mediation of healthcare education; while some practitioners and tools focus on the opportunities for free expression, exchange and participation, others are about security, tracking and direction. This symposium will present a debate between leading thinkers in technology-use contemporary healthcare education on whether the dominant role of technology-mediated education is about creating greater user autonomy or greater institutional control. Participants are invited to contribute to the debate to help us better understand the directions we are taking.

Why and when portfolios (do not) work in medical education
Panel: Erik Driessen, John Pitts, Jan van Tartwijk, Miriam McMullen
Portfolios are widely used in medical education as tools for authentic assessment, to stimulate reflection, and/or to monitor and support professional development. The structure and content of portfolios that are used differ considerably. Because of these differences in purpose, structure and content, it is difficult to interpret the often contradicting research findings reported in literature on the effectiveness of portfolios. The aim of this symposium is to explore the challenges and opportunities offered by portfolios by discussing the question 'Why and when portfolios (do not) work in medical education?' The panellists will provide their perspectives on this question and engage the audience in a dialogue on the different challenges and opportunities.

How can we prepare students for the information flood?
Paul Glasziou
We live in an information and research revolution, and are suffering overload. Approximately 400,000 references - including around 20,000 randomised trials - are added to MEDLINE each year. And there are no signs of the growth slowing. So how can train future clinicians to keep up to date with new developments or to fill knowledge gaps they identify during day-to-day practices? Evidence suggests that most of the billions of dollars invested yearly in traditional continuing medical education does not help. There are no simple solutions to this problem. However, there are several barriers that may be part of a multifaceted 'solution'. First we need to collectively recognise the problem in our own daily clinical or teaching work. Second, all those involved in health and health care require basic skills in finding, appraising and applying evidence. Third, we need better summaries, syntheses, and access to evidence wherever and whenever it is needed. Fourth, we need to create the time for this change by reducing current ineffective means of knowledge transfer.

Students as a (valuable) resource
Jan Hilgers, Emily Rigby, Paul de Roos
In recent years students have become well respected partners of medical schools working on continuous innovation and reform of medical education. However, few faculties subsidise their students to attend international student meetings or professional conferences which empower them for further international collaboration, restricting the contribution students can make. As one of the key stakeholders in the field this may halt progress as a whole. Exemplary for international medical students' initiatives we present the series of Bologna Process follow-up conferences organised by the International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) and the European Medical Students' Association (EMSA) which have taken place since 2003. These meetings have resulted in widely recognised policy statements and a consensus outcome-based European Core Curriculum from the students' perspective.
Investing resources in student initiatives and extra-curricula activities provides the opportunity for the next generation to contribute to shaping the future of the health care system they will be working in.

Spotlights
Various